16. Icinga 2 Features

16.1. Logging

Icinga 2 supports three different types of logging:

  • File logging
  • Syslog (on *NIX-based operating systems)
  • Console logging (STDOUT on tty)

You can enable additional loggers using the icinga2 feature enable and icinga2 feature disable commands to configure loggers:

Feature Description
debuglog Debug log (path: /var/log/icinga2/debug.log, severity: debug or higher)
mainlog Main log (path: /var/log/icinga2/icinga2.log, severity: information or higher)
syslog Syslog (severity: warning or higher)

By default file the mainlog feature is enabled. When running Icinga 2 on a terminal log messages with severity information or higher are written to the console.

Packages will install a configuration file for logrotate on supported platforms. This configuration ensures that the icinga2.log, error.log and debug.log files are rotated on a daily basis.

16.2. DB IDO

The IDO (Icinga Data Output) modules for Icinga 2 take care of exporting all configuration and status information into a database. The IDO database is used by a number of projects including Icinga Web 1.x and 2.

Details on the installation can be found in the Configuring DB IDO chapter. Details on the configuration can be found in the IdoMysqlConnection and IdoPgsqlConnection object configuration documentation. The DB IDO feature supports High Availability in the Icinga 2 cluster.

The following example query checks the health of the current Icinga 2 instance writing its current status to the DB IDO backend table icinga_programstatus every 10 seconds. By default it checks 60 seconds into the past which is a reasonable amount of time -- adjust it for your requirements. If the condition is not met, the query returns an empty result.

Tip

Use check plugins to monitor the backend.

Replace the default string with your instance name if different.

Example for MySQL:

# mysql -u root -p icinga -e "SELECT status_update_time FROM icinga_programstatus ps
  JOIN icinga_instances i ON ps.instance_id=i.instance_id
  WHERE (UNIX_TIMESTAMP(ps.status_update_time) > UNIX_TIMESTAMP(NOW())-60)
  AND i.instance_name='default';"

+---------------------+
| status_update_time  |
+---------------------+
| 2014-05-29 14:29:56 |
+---------------------+

Example for PostgreSQL:

# export PGPASSWORD=icinga; psql -U icinga -d icinga -c "SELECT ps.status_update_time FROM icinga_programstatus AS ps
  JOIN icinga_instances AS i ON ps.instance_id=i.instance_id
  WHERE ((SELECT extract(epoch from status_update_time) FROM icinga_programstatus) > (SELECT extract(epoch from now())-60))
  AND i.instance_name='default'";

status_update_time
------------------------
 2014-05-29 15:11:38+02
(1 Zeile)

A detailed list on the available table attributes can be found in the DB IDO Schema documentation.

16.3. External Commands

Icinga 2 provides an external command pipe for processing commands triggering specific actions (for example rescheduling a service check through the web interface).

In order to enable the ExternalCommandListener configuration use the following command and restart Icinga 2 afterwards:

# icinga2 feature enable command

Icinga 2 creates the command pipe file as /var/run/icinga2/cmd/icinga2.cmd using the default configuration.

Web interfaces and other Icinga addons are able to send commands to Icinga 2 through the external command pipe, for example for rescheduling a forced service check:

# /bin/echo "[`date +%s`] SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;ping4;`date +%s`" >> /var/run/icinga2/cmd/icinga2.cmd

# tail -f /var/log/messages

Oct 17 15:01:25 icinga-server icinga2: Executing external command: [1382014885] SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;ping4;1382014885
Oct 17 15:01:25 icinga-server icinga2: Rescheduling next check for service 'ping4'

A list of currently supported external commands can be found here.

Detailed information on the commands and their required parameters can be found on the Icinga 1.x documentation.

16.4. Performance Data

When a host or service check is executed plugins should provide so-called performance data. Next to that additional check performance data can be fetched using Icinga 2 runtime macros such as the check latency or the current service state (or additional custom attributes).

The performance data can be passed to external applications which aggregate and store them in their backends. These tools usually generate graphs for historical reporting and trending.

Well-known addons processing Icinga performance data are PNP4Nagios, Graphite or OpenTSDB.

16.4.1. Writing Performance Data Files

PNP4Nagios and Graphios use performance data collector daemons to fetch the current performance files for their backend updates.

Therefore the Icinga 2 PerfdataWriter feature allows you to define the output template format for host and services helped with Icinga 2 runtime vars.

host_format_template = "DATATYPE::HOSTPERFDATA\tTIMET::$icinga.timet$\tHOSTNAME::$host.name$\tHOSTPERFDATA::$host.perfdata$\tHOSTCHECKCOMMAND::$host.check_command$\tHOSTSTATE::$host.state$\tHOSTSTATETYPE::$host.state_type$"
service_format_template = "DATATYPE::SERVICEPERFDATA\tTIMET::$icinga.timet$\tHOSTNAME::$host.name$\tSERVICEDESC::$service.name$\tSERVICEPERFDATA::$service.perfdata$\tSERVICECHECKCOMMAND::$service.check_command$\tHOSTSTATE::$host.state$\tHOSTSTATETYPE::$host.state_type$\tSERVICESTATE::$service.state$\tSERVICESTATETYPE::$service.state_type$"

The default templates are already provided with the Icinga 2 feature configuration which can be enabled using

# icinga2 feature enable perfdata

By default all performance data files are rotated in a 15 seconds interval into the /var/spool/icinga2/perfdata/ directory as host-perfdata.<timestamp> and service-perfdata.<timestamp>. External collectors need to parse the rotated performance data files and then remove the processed files.

16.4.2. Graphite Carbon Cache Writer

While there are some Graphite collector scripts and daemons like Graphios available for Icinga 1.x it's more reasonable to directly process the check and plugin performance in memory in Icinga 2. Once there are new metrics available, Icinga 2 will directly write them to the defined Graphite Carbon daemon tcp socket.

You can enable the feature using

# icinga2 feature enable graphite

By default the GraphiteWriter feature expects the Graphite Carbon Cache to listen at 127.0.0.1 on TCP port 2003.

16.4.2.1. Current Graphite Schema

The current naming schema is defined as follows. The official Icinga Web 2 Graphite module will use that schema too.

The default prefix for hosts and services is configured using runtime macroslike this:

icinga2.$host.name$.host.$host.check_command$
icinga2.$host.name$.services.$service.name$.$service.check_command$

You can customize the prefix name by using the host_name_template and service_name_template configuration attributes.

The additional levels will allow fine granular filters and also template capabilities, e.g. by using the check command disk for specific graph templates in web applications rendering the Graphite data.

The following characters are escaped in prefix labels:

Character Escaped character
whitespace _
. _
\ _
/ _

Metric values are stored like this:

<prefix>.perfdata.<perfdata-label>.value

The following characters are escaped in perfdata labels:

Character Escaped character
whitespace _
\ _
/ _
:: .

Note that perfdata labels may contain dots (.) allowing to add more subsequent levels inside the Graphite tree. :: adds support for multi performance labels and is therefore replaced by ..

By enabling enable_send_thresholds Icinga 2 automatically adds the following threshold metrics:

<prefix>.perfdata.<perfdata-label>.min
<prefix>.perfdata.<perfdata-label>.max
<prefix>.perfdata.<perfdata-label>.warn
<prefix>.perfdata.<perfdata-label>.crit

By enabling enable_send_metadata Icinga 2 automatically adds the following metadata metrics:

<prefix>.metadata.current_attempt
<prefix>.metadata.downtime_depth
<prefix>.metadata.acknowledgement
<prefix>.metadata.execution_time
<prefix>.metadata.latency
<prefix>.metadata.max_check_attempts
<prefix>.metadata.reachable
<prefix>.metadata.state
<prefix>.metadata.state_type

Metadata metric overview:

metric description
current_attempt current check attempt
max_check_attempts maximum check attempts until the hard state is reached
reachable checked object is reachable
downtime_depth number of downtimes this object is in
acknowledgement whether the object is acknowledged or not
execution_time check execution time
latency check latency
state current state of the checked object
state_type 0=SOFT, 1=HARD state

The following example illustrates how to configure the storage schemas for Graphite Carbon Cache.

[icinga2_default]
# intervals like PNP4Nagios uses them per default
pattern = ^icinga2\.
retentions = 1m:2d,5m:10d,30m:90d,360m:4y

16.4.2.2. Graphite Schema < 2.4

In order to restore the old legacy schema, you'll need to adopt the GraphiteWriter configuration:

object GraphiteWriter "graphite" {

  enable_legacy_mode = true

  host_name_template = "icinga.$host.name$"
  service_name_template = "icinga.$host.name$.$service.name$"
}

The old legacy naming schema is

icinga.<hostname>.<metricname>
icinga.<hostname>.<servicename>.<metricname>

You can customize the metric prefix name by using the host_name_template and service_name_template configuration attributes.

The example below uses runtime macros and a global constant named GraphiteEnv. The constant name is freely definable and should be put in the constants.conf file.

const GraphiteEnv = "icinga.env1"

object GraphiteWriter "graphite" {
  host_name_template = GraphiteEnv + ".$host.name$"
  service_name_template = GraphiteEnv + ".$host.name$.$service.name$"
}

To make sure Icinga 2 writes a valid label into Graphite some characters are replaced with _ in the target name:

\/.-  (and space)

The resulting name in Graphite might look like:

www-01 / http-cert / response time
icinga.www_01.http_cert.response_time

In addition to the performance data retrieved from the check plugin, Icinga 2 sends internal check statistic data to Graphite:

metric description
current_attempt current check attempt
max_check_attempts maximum check attempts until the hard state is reached
reachable checked object is reachable
downtime_depth number of downtimes this object is in
acknowledgement whether the object is acknowledged or not
execution_time check execution time
latency check latency
state current state of the checked object
state_type 0=SOFT, 1=HARD state

The following example illustrates how to configure the storage-schemas for Graphite Carbon Cache. Please make sure that the order is correct because the first match wins.

[icinga_internals]
pattern = ^icinga\..*\.(max_check_attempts|reachable|current_attempt|execution_time|latency|state|state_type)
retentions = 5m:7d

[icinga_default]
# intervals like PNP4Nagios uses them per default
pattern = ^icinga\.
retentions = 1m:2d,5m:10d,30m:90d,360m:4y

16.4.3. InfluxDB Writer

Once there are new metrics available, Icinga 2 will directly write them to the defined InfluxDB HTTP API.

You can enable the feature using

# icinga2 feature enable influxdb

By default the InfluxdbWriter feature expects the InfluxDB daemon to listen at 127.0.0.1 on port 8086.

More configuration details can be found here.

16.4.4. GELF Writer

The Graylog Extended Log Format (short: GELF can be used to send application logs directly to a TCP socket.

While it has been specified by the graylog2 project as their input resource standard, other tools such as Logstash also support GELF as input type.

You can enable the feature using

# icinga2 feature enable gelf

By default the GelfWriter object expects the GELF receiver to listen at 127.0.0.1 on TCP port 12201. The default source attribute is set to icinga2. You can customize that for your needs if required.

Currently these events are processed:

  • Check results
  • State changes
  • Notifications

16.4.5. OpenTSDB Writer

While there are some OpenTSDB collector scripts and daemons like tcollector available for Icinga 1.x it's more reasonable to directly process the check and plugin performance in memory in Icinga 2. Once there are new metrics available, Icinga 2 will directly write them to the defined TSDB TCP socket.

You can enable the feature using

# icinga2 feature enable opentsdb

By default the OpenTsdbWriter object expects the TSD to listen at 127.0.0.1 on port 4242.

The current naming schema is

icinga.host.<metricname>
icinga.service.<servicename>.<metricname>

for host and service checks. The tag host is always applied.

To make sure Icinga 2 writes a valid metric into OpenTSDB some characters are replaced with _ in the target name:

\  (and space)

The resulting name in OpenTSDB might look like:

www-01 / http-cert / response time
icinga.http_cert.response_time

In addition to the performance data retrieved from the check plugin, Icinga 2 sends internal check statistic data to OpenTSDB:

metric description
current_attempt current check attempt
max_check_attempts maximum check attempts until the hard state is reached
reachable checked object is reachable
downtime_depth number of downtimes this object is in
acknowledgement whether the object is acknowledged or not
execution_time check execution time
latency check latency
state current state of the checked object
state_type 0=SOFT, 1=HARD state

While reachable, state and state_type are metrics for the host or service the other metrics follow the current naming schema

icinga.check.<metricname>

with the following tags

tag description
type the check type, one of [host, service]
host hostname, the check ran on
service the service name (if type=service)

Note

You might want to set the tsd.core.auto_create_metrics setting to true in your opentsdb.conf configuration file.

16.5. Livestatus

The MK Livestatus project implements a query protocol that lets users query their Icinga instance for status information. It can also be used to send commands.

Tip

Only install the Livestatus feature if your web interface or addon requires you to do so (for example, Icinga Web 2. Icinga Classic UI 1.x and Icinga Web 1.x do not use Livestatus as backend.

The Livestatus component that is distributed as part of Icinga 2 is a re-implementation of the Livestatus protocol which is compatible with MK Livestatus.

Details on the available tables and attributes with Icinga 2 can be found in the Livestatus Schema section.

You can enable Livestatus using icinga2 feature enable:

# icinga2 feature enable livestatus

After that you will have to restart Icinga 2:

Debian/Ubuntu, RHEL/CentOS 6 and SUSE:

# service icinga2 restart

RHEL/CentOS 7 and Fedora:

# systemctl restart icinga2

By default the Livestatus socket is available in /var/run/icinga2/cmd/livestatus.

In order for queries and commands to work you will need to add your query user (e.g. your web server) to the icingacmd group:

# usermod -a -G icingacmd www-data

The Debian packages use nagios as the user and group name. Make sure to change icingacmd to nagios if you're using Debian.

Change www-data to the user you're using to run queries.

In order to use the historical tables provided by the livestatus feature (for example, the log table) you need to have the CompatLogger feature enabled. By default these logs are expected to be in /var/log/icinga2/compat. A different path can be set using the compat_log_path configuration attribute.

# icinga2 feature enable compatlog

16.5.1. Livestatus Sockets

Other to the Icinga 1.x Addon, Icinga 2 supports two socket types

  • Unix socket (default)
  • TCP socket

Details on the configuration can be found in the LivestatusListener object configuration.

16.5.2. Livestatus GET Queries

Note

All Livestatus queries require an additional empty line as query end identifier. The nc tool (netcat) provides the -U parameter to communicate using a unix socket.

There also is a Perl module available in CPAN for accessing the Livestatus socket programmatically: Monitoring::Livestatus

Example using the unix socket:

# echo -e "GET services\n" | /usr/bin/nc -U /var/run/icinga2/cmd/livestatus

Example using the tcp socket listening on port 6558:

# echo -e 'GET services\n' | netcat 127.0.0.1 6558

# cat servicegroups <<EOF
GET servicegroups

EOF

(cat servicegroups; sleep 1) | netcat 127.0.0.1 6558

16.5.3. Livestatus COMMAND Queries

A list of available external commands and their parameters can be found here

$ echo -e 'COMMAND <externalcommandstring>' | netcat 127.0.0.1 6558

16.5.4. Livestatus Filters

and, or, negate

Operator Negate Description
= != Equality
~ !~ Regex match
=~ !=~ Equality ignoring case
~~ !~~ Regex ignoring case
< Less than
> Greater than
<= Less than or equal
>= Greater than or equal

16.5.5. Livestatus Stats

Schema: "Stats: aggregatefunction aggregateattribute"

Aggregate Function Description
sum  
min  
max  
avg sum / count
std standard deviation
suminv sum (1 / value)
avginv suminv / count
count ordinary default for any stats query if not aggregate function defined

Example:

GET hosts
Filter: has_been_checked = 1
Filter: check_type = 0
Stats: sum execution_time
Stats: sum latency
Stats: sum percent_state_change
Stats: min execution_time
Stats: min latency
Stats: min percent_state_change
Stats: max execution_time
Stats: max latency
Stats: max percent_state_change
OutputFormat: json
ResponseHeader: fixed16

16.5.6. Livestatus Output

  • CSV

CSV output uses two levels of array separators: The members array separator is a comma (1st level) while extra info and host|service relation separator is a pipe (2nd level).

Separators can be set using ASCII codes like:

Separators: 10 59 44 124
  • JSON

Default separators.

16.5.7. Livestatus Error Codes

Code Description
200 OK
404 Table does not exist
452 Exception on query

16.5.8. Livestatus Tables

Table Join Description
hosts   host config and status attributes, services counter
hostgroups   hostgroup config, status attributes and host/service counters
services hosts service config and status attributes
servicegroups   servicegroup config, status attributes and service counters
contacts   contact config and status attributes
contactgroups   contact config, members
commands   command name and line
status   programstatus, config and stats
comments services status attributes
downtimes services status attributes
timeperiods   name and is inside flag
endpoints   config and status attributes
log services, hosts, contacts, commands parses compatlog and shows log attributes
statehist hosts, services parses compatlog and aggregates state change attributes
hostsbygroup hostgroups host attributes grouped by hostgroup and its attributes
servicesbygroup servicegroups service attributes grouped by servicegroup and its attributes
servicesbyhostgroup hostgroups service attributes grouped by hostgroup and its attributes

The commands table is populated with CheckCommand, EventCommand and NotificationCommand objects.

A detailed list on the available table attributes can be found in the Livestatus Schema documentation.

16.6. Status Data Files

Icinga 1.x writes object configuration data and status data in a cyclic interval to its objects.cache and status.dat files. Icinga 2 provides the StatusDataWriter object which dumps all configuration objects and status updates in a regular interval.

# icinga2 feature enable statusdata

Icinga 1.x Classic UI requires this data set as part of its backend.

Note

If you are not using any web interface or addon which uses these files, you can safely disable this feature.

16.7. Compat Log Files

The Icinga 1.x log format is considered being the Compat Log in Icinga 2 provided with the CompatLogger object.

These logs are not only used for informational representation in external web interfaces parsing the logs, but also to generate SLA reports and trends in Icinga 1.x Classic UI. Furthermore the Livestatus feature uses these logs for answering queries to historical tables.

The CompatLogger object can be enabled with

# icinga2 feature enable compatlog

By default, the Icinga 1.x log file called icinga.log is located in /var/log/icinga2/compat. Rotated log files are moved into var/log/icinga2/compat/archives.

The format cannot be changed without breaking compatibility to existing log parsers.

# tail -f /var/log/icinga2/compat/icinga.log

[1382115688] LOG ROTATION: HOURLY
[1382115688] LOG VERSION: 2.0
[1382115688] HOST STATE: CURRENT;localhost;UP;HARD;1;
[1382115688] SERVICE STATE: CURRENT;localhost;disk;WARNING;HARD;1;
[1382115688] SERVICE STATE: CURRENT;localhost;http;OK;HARD;1;
[1382115688] SERVICE STATE: CURRENT;localhost;load;OK;HARD;1;
[1382115688] SERVICE STATE: CURRENT;localhost;ping4;OK;HARD;1;
[1382115688] SERVICE STATE: CURRENT;localhost;ping6;OK;HARD;1;
[1382115688] SERVICE STATE: CURRENT;localhost;processes;WARNING;HARD;1;
[1382115688] SERVICE STATE: CURRENT;localhost;ssh;OK;HARD;1;
[1382115688] SERVICE STATE: CURRENT;localhost;users;OK;HARD;1;
[1382115706] EXTERNAL COMMAND: SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;disk;1382115705
[1382115706] EXTERNAL COMMAND: SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;http;1382115705
[1382115706] EXTERNAL COMMAND: SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;load;1382115705
[1382115706] EXTERNAL COMMAND: SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;ping4;1382115705
[1382115706] EXTERNAL COMMAND: SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;ping6;1382115705
[1382115706] EXTERNAL COMMAND: SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;processes;1382115705
[1382115706] EXTERNAL COMMAND: SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;ssh;1382115705
[1382115706] EXTERNAL COMMAND: SCHEDULE_FORCED_SVC_CHECK;localhost;users;1382115705
[1382115731] EXTERNAL COMMAND: PROCESS_SERVICE_CHECK_RESULT;localhost;ping6;2;critical test|
[1382115731] SERVICE ALERT: localhost;ping6;CRITICAL;SOFT;2;critical test

16.8. Check Result Files

Icinga 1.x writes its check result files to a temporary spool directory where they are processed in a regular interval. While this is extremely inefficient in performance regards it has been rendered useful for passing passive check results directly into Icinga 1.x skipping the external command pipe.

Several clustered/distributed environments and check-aggregation addons use that method. In order to support step-by-step migration of these environments, Icinga 2 supports the CheckResultReader object.

There is no feature configuration available, but it must be defined on-demand in your Icinga 2 objects configuration.

object CheckResultReader "reader" {
  spool_dir = "/data/check-results"
}